Winston Churchill – (012)

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British Conservative politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. Widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century, he served as Prime Minister twice (1940–45 and 1951–55). A noted statesman and orator, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer, and an artist. He is the only British prime minister to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature, and was the first person to be made an Honorary Citizen of the United States.

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (Oxfordshire, 30 de novembro de 1874[1] — Londres, 24 de janeiro de 1965[1]) foi um político conservador e estadista britânico, famoso principalmente por sua atuação como primeiro-ministro do Reino Unido durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Ele foi primeiro-ministro britânico por duas vezes (1940-45 e 1951-55). Orador e estadista notável, ele também foi oficial no Exército Britânico, historiador, escritor e artista. Ele é o único primeiro-ministro britânico a ter recebido o Prêmio Nobel de Literatura e a cidadania honorária dos Estados Unidos.

Quotes by Sir Winston Churchill:

You have enemies? Good. That means you’ve stood up for something, sometime in your life.

The truth is incontrovertible, malice may attack it, ignorance may deride it, but in the end; there it is.

Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fall, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science.  Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth lasts for a thousand years, men will still say, “This was their finest hour!”

We make a living by what we get, but we make a life by what we give.

A pessimist sees the difficulty in every opportunity; an optimist sees the opportunity in every difficulty.

Nancy Astor: “Sir, if you were my husband, I would give you poison.”
Churchill: “If I were your husband I would take it.”

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, PC, DL, FRS, Hon. RA (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British Conservative politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. Widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century, he served as Prime Minister twice (1940–45 and 1951–55). A noted statesman and orator, Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a writer, and an artist. He is the only British prime minister to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature, and was the first person to be made an Honorary Citizen of the United States.

Churchill was born into the aristocratic family of the Dukes of Marlborough. His father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer; his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young army officer, he saw action in British India, the Sudan, and the Second Boer War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns.

At the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, and First Lord of the Admiralty as part of the Asquith Liberal government. During the war, he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign caused his departure from government. He then briefly resumed active army service on the Western Front as commander of the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, and Secretary of State for Air. After the War, Churchill served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Conservative (Baldwin) government of 1924–29, controversially returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy. Also controversial was his opposition to increased home rule for India and his resistance to the 1936 abdication of Edward VIII.

Out of office and politically “in the wilderness” during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in warning about Nazi Germany and in campaigning for rearmament. On the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister. His steadfast refusal to consider defeat, surrender, or a compromise peace helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult early days of the War when Britain stood alone in its active opposition to Adolf Hitler. Churchill was particularly noted for his speeches and radio broadcasts, which helped inspire the British people. He led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured.

After the Conservative Party lost the 1945 election, he became Leader of the Opposition. In 1951, he again became Prime Minister, before retiring in 1955. Upon his death, Elizabeth II granted him the honour of a state funeral, which saw one of the largest assemblies of world statesmen in history.[1] Named the Greatest Briton of all time in a 2002 poll, Churchill is widely regarded as being among the most influential people in British history. [Wikipedia – English]

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill[1] KG, OM, CH, TD, PC, DL, FRS, Hon. RA (Oxfordshire, 30 de novembro de 1874[1] — Londres, 24 de janeiro de 1965[1]) foi um político conservador e estadista britânico, famoso principalmente por sua atuação como primeiro-ministro do Reino Unido durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Ele foi primeiro-ministro britânico por duas vezes (1940-45 e 1951-55). Orador e estadista notável, ele também foi oficial no Exército Britânico, historiador, escritor e artista. Ele é o único primeiro-ministro britânico a ter recebido o Prêmio Nobel de Literatura e a cidadania honorária dos Estados Unidos.

Durante sua carreira no exército, Churchill pôde assistir à ação militar na Índia britânica, no Sudão e na Segunda Guerra dos Bôeres (1899-1902). Ganhou fama e notoriedade como correspondente de guerra através dos livros que escreveu descrevendo as campanhas militares. Ele serviu brevemente no Exército britânico no Fronte Ocidental, durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial (1914-1918), comandando o 6º Batalhão dos Fuzileiros Reais Escoceses.

Churchill nasceu em uma família da nobreza britânica, da família do duque de Marlborough. Seu pai, Lorde Randolph Churchill, foi um carismático político, tendo servido como ministro da Fazenda do Reino Unido. Antes de alcançar o cargo de primeiro-ministro britânico, Churchill esteve em cargos proeminentes na política do Reino Unido por quatro décadas. Notavelmente sua eleição para o parlamento em 1900; sua ascensão a secretário para os Assuntos Internos em 1910; e sua estadia no Ministério da Fazenda do Reino Unido entre 1924 e 1929. Em 2002 foi eleito pela BBC o maior britânico de todos os tempos. [Wikipedia – Português]

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