Abraham Lincoln – (010)

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.

He successfully led his country through its greatest constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union while ending slavery, and promoting economic and financial modernization.

.

Abraham Lincoln (Hodgenville, 12 de fevereiro de 1809 — Washington, 15 de abril de 1865) foi um político estadunidense, 16° presidente dos Estados Unidos de março de 1861 até seu assassinato em abril de 1865.

.

Quotes by A. Lincoln:

“If I had eight hours to chop down a tree, I’d spend six hours sharpening my ax” 

“I am a success today because I had a friend who believed in me and I didn’t have the heart to let him down…”

“I am not bound to win, but I am bound to be true. I am not bound to succeed, but I am bound to live by the light that I have. I must stand with anybody that stands right, and stand with him while he is right, and part with him when he goes wrong.”

“The time comes upon every public man when it is best for him to keep his lips closed.”

“Be sure you put your feet in the right place, then stand firm.”

“Better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak out and remove all doubt.”

“I destroy my enemies when I make them my friends.”

“Sir, my concern is not whether God is on our side; my greatest concern is to be on God’s side, for God is always right”

“In regard to this Great Book, I have but to say, it is the best gift God has given to man. All the good the Saviour gave to the world was communicated through this book.” –  (Words on being presented with a Bible)

 

Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.

He successfully led his country through its greatest constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union while ending slavery, and promoting economic and financial modernization. Reared in a poor family on the western frontier, Lincoln was mostly self-educated. He became a country lawyer, a Whig Party leader, Illinois state legislator in the 1830s, and a one-term member of the United States House of Representatives in the 1840s. After a series of debates in 1858 that gave national visibility to his opposition to the expansion of slavery, Lincoln lost a Senate race to his arch-rival Stephen A. Douglas. Lincoln, a moderate from a swing state, secured the Republican Party nomination. With almost no support in the South he swept the North and was elected president in 1860. His election was the signal for seven southern slave states to declare their secession from the Union and form the Confederate States of America. The departure of the Southerners gave Lincoln’s party firm control of Congress, but no formula for compromise or reconciliation was found, and the war came.

When the North enthusiastically rallied behind the national flag after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, President Lincoln concentrated on the military and political dimensions of the war effort. His goal was now to reunify the nation. As the South was in a state of insurrection, he exercised his authority to suspend habeas corpus in that situation, arresting and detaining without trial of thousands of suspected secessionists. He prevented British recognition of the Confederacy by skillfully handling the Trent affair late in 1861. His efforts toward the abolition of slavery include issuing his Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, encouraging the border states to outlaw slavery, and helping push through Congress the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which finally ended all slavery in December 1865. Lincoln closely supervised the war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including commanding general Ulysses S. Grant. He brought leaders of various factions of his party into his cabinet and pressured them to cooperate. Under his leadership, the Union set up a naval blockade that shut down the South’s normal trade, took control of the border slave states at the start of the war, gained control of communications with gunboats on the southern river systems, and tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. Each time a general failed, Lincoln substituted another until finally Grant succeeded in 1865.

An exceptionally astute politician deeply involved with power issues in each state, he reached out to War Democrats and managed his own re-election in the 1864 presidential election. As the leader of the moderate faction of the Republican party, Lincoln found his policies and personality were “blasted from all sides”: Radical Republicans demanded harsher treatment of the South, War Democrats desired more compromise, Copperheads despised him, and irreconcilable secessionists plotted his death. Politically, Lincoln fought back with patronage, by pitting his opponents against each other, and by appealing to the American people with his powers of oratory. His Gettysburg Address of 1863 became the most quoted speech in American history. It was an iconic statement of America’s dedication to the principles of nationalism, republicanism, equal rights, liberty, and democracy. At the close of the war, Lincoln held a moderate view of Reconstruction, seeking to reunite the nation speedily through a policy of generous reconciliation in the face of lingering and bitter divisiveness. But six days after the surrender of Confederate commanding general Robert E. Lee, Lincoln was assassinated by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. His death was the first assassination of a U.S. president and sent the nation into mourning. Lincoln has been consistently ranked by scholars and the public as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents.

[Wikipedia – English]

 

⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯

Abraham Lincoln (Hodgenville, 12 de fevereiro de 1809 — Washington, 15 de abril de 1865) foi um político estadunidense, 16° presidente dos Estados Unidos de março de 1861 até seu assassinato em abril de 1865.

Liderou o país de forma bem-sucedida durante sua maior crise interna, a Guerra Civil Americana, preservando a União e abolindo a escravidão. Antes de sua eleição em 1860 como o primeiro presidente Republicano, Lincoln atuou como advogado de condado, legislador pelo estado de Illinois, membro da Câmara dos Representantes e duas vezes candidato derrotado ao Senado dos Estados Unidos. Oponente declarado à expansão da escravidão nos Estados Unidos, Lincoln venceu a pré-candidatura do Partido Republicano em 1860, sendo eleito presidente no final do mesmo ano. Grande parte de seu mandato foi dedicado ao combate aos separatistas dos Estados Confederados da América durante a Guerra da Secessão. Ele introduziu medidas que levaram à abolição da escravidão, promulgando a Proclamação de Emancipação em 1863 e promovendo a aprovação da Décima terceira emenda da constituição dos Estados Unidos da América.

Lincoln supervisionou ostensivamente os esforços vitoriosos de guerra, especialmente na seleção dos melhores generais, como Ulysses S. Grant. Historiadores concluíram que ele conseguiu se sobrepor às diversas facções do Partido Republicano, negociando a cooperação dos líderes de cada uma delas pessoalmente em seu gabinete. Sob sua liderança, a União obteve controle dos estados escravocratas de fronteira durante a guerra, ao mesmo tempo em que ele conseguia se reeleger na eleição presidencial de 1864.

Opositores políticos e outros oponentes à guerra criticaram Lincoln por se recusar a chegar a um denominador comum na questão da escravidão. Por outro lado, os Republicanos Radicais, uma facção abolicionista do Partido Republicano, o criticou pelo avanço lento na abolição da escravatura. Mesmo com esses adversários, Lincoln conseguiu conquistar a opinião pública através de sua retórica e discursos; seu Discurso de Gettysburg, de 1863, tornou-se um símbolo icônico dos deveres de sua nação. Nas etapas finais da guerra, Lincoln tinha uma visão moderada da Reconstrução, procurando reunir seu país de forma mais rápida através de uma política generosa de reconciliação.

Seis dias após a rendição em larga escala das forças Confederadas sob o comando do General Robert E. Lee, Lincoln se tornou o primeiro Presidente dos Estados Unidos a ser assassinado.

[Wikipedia – Português]

 

Leave a comment

Filed under English, People, Português

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s